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The next morning, we continued on along the Coconino Rim, catching views of the Canyon that got better and better. The end goal of day two was Grandview Tower, a fire lookout built by the Civilian Conservation Corps in 1936 that now includes a Forest Service campground. Sirena met us there with Arizona Trail beer—liquid courage for climbing 80 feet to the top of the tower, which creaked in the wind. We were rewarded by an overview the Canyon, a preview of the next day, when we would get in the van and drive across the boundary of Grand Canyon National Park.

The next day, we took in the hustle and bustle of the Grand Canyon’s South Rim, shifting from being some of the few humans on our stretch of the Arizona Trail to joining throngs of visitors from around the world. Leaving the crowds behind, Sirena took us to a few of her favorite spots, and we enjoyed incredible views and stories of the canyon from the afternoon through sunset and well after the stars came out. There’s nothing like visiting a new place with someone who knows it intimately.

It’s easy to imagine spending a lifetime exploring the Grand Canyon area—every new vantage point or shift in the light seems to bring out a new feature or personality in the land. We celebrated our last night at Mather Campground with a bonfire and s’mores, and I found myself wishing I had a warm enough sleeping bag to sleep under the stars like Jason and Sirena. Maybe I’ll invest in some new gear, and if I’m lucky, Island Press will send me out on another adventure.

Island Press
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Rebecca Bright

Associate Editor and Subsidiary Rights Manager at Island Press

Katharine Sucher / December 14, 2016

This holiday season, give the gift of an Island Press book. With a catalog of more than 1,000 books, we guarantee there's something for everyone on your shopping list. Check out our list of staff selections, and share your own ideas in the commentsbelow.

For the OUTDOORSPERSON in your life:

by John Fleck Anyone who has ever rafted down the Colorado, spent a starlit night on its banks, or even drank from a faucet in the western US needs . Longtime journalist John Fleck will give the outdoors lover in your life a new appreciation for this amazing river and the people who work to conserve it. This book is a gift of hope for the New Year.

by Jason Mark Do you constantly find your friend waxing poetic about their camping tales and their intimate connection to the peaceful, yet mysterious powers of nature? Sounds like they will relate to Jason Mark’s tales of his expeditions across a multitude of American landscapes, as told in . More than a collection of stories, this narrative demonstrates the power of nature’s and explores what the concept of wild has come to mean in this Human Age.

by John Pastor Is the outdoorsperson in your life all dressed up in boots, parka, and backpack with nowhere to go? Looking for meaning in another titanium French press coffeemaker for the camp stove? leaves the technogadgets behind and reminds us that all we really need to bring to the woods when we venture out is a curious mind and the ability to ask a good question about the natural world around us. Such as, why do leaves die? What do pine cones have to do with the shape of a bird’s beak? And, how are blowflies important to skunk cabbage? A few quality hours among its pages will equip your outdoor enthusiast to venture forth and view nature with new appreciation, whether in the North Woods with ecologist John Pastor or a natural ecosystem closer to home.

Also consider: by Wade Davis,by E.O. Wilson For the CLIMATE DENIER in your life:

by Yoram Bauman This holiday season, give your favorite climate-denier a passive aggressive “wink-wink, nudge-nudge” with featuring self –described Stand-up Economist Yoram Bauman and award-winning illustrator Grady Klein. Give the gift of fun, entertaining basic understanding of what is, undeniably and not up for subjective debate, scientific fact!

Also consider: by Anthony Barnosky,by Joseph Romm

For the HEALTH NUT in your life:

by Emily Monosson Give the health nut in your life the gift of understanding with . Your friends and family will discover how chemicals are changing life on earth and how we can protect it. Plus, they’ll read fascinating stories about the search for a universal vaccine, the attack of relentless bedbugs, and a miracle cancer drug that saved a young father’s life.

Also consider:by Dan Fagin, by Carlton Reid,

For the ADVOCATE in your life:

by Sanderson, et. al Need an antidote to the doom and gloom? Stressed-out environmental advocates will appreciate . It’s a deep dive into one of the most important questions of our time: how can we create cities where people and nature thrive together? showcases successful efforts to restore New York’s much abused Jamaica Bay, but its lessons apply to any communities seeking to become more resilient in a turbulent world.

by Josh Farley and Herman Daly Blow the mind of the advocate in your life with a copy of by the godfather of ecological economics, Herman Daly, and Josh Farley. In plain, and sometimes humorous English, they’ll come to understand how our current economic system does not play by the same laws that govern nearly every other system known to humankind—that is, the laws of thermodynamics. Given recent financial and political events, there’s a message of hope within the book as it lays out specific policy and social change frameworks.

Also consider:by Mike Lydon,by The Union of Concerned Scientists

For the CRAZY CAT PERSON in your life:

by Alan Rabinowitz The cat lovers in your life will lose themselves in , an illuminating story about the journey of the jaguar. This is the perfect book for any of your feline loving friends, whether they want to pursue adventure with the big cats of the wild, or stay home with a book and cup of tea.

Also consider:by Cristina Eisenberg, WHITE MOUNTAINEERINGX Danner Suede Boots with Platforms Gr UK 75 BpPcly5
by Alan Rabinowitz

For the GARDENER in your life:

by Margie Ruddick Give your favorite gardener an antidote to the winter blues. The lush photographs of and inspirational advice on cultivating landscapes in tune with nature, transport readers to spectacular parks, gardens, and far-flung forests. This book is guaranteed to be well-thumbed and underlined by the time spring planting season arrives!

Also consider:by Stefano Mancuso, , Travis Beck

For the STUBBORN RELATIVE in your life:

by Lucy Moore For the person keeping the peace in your family this holiday season, the perfect gift is , an inspiring how to guide demonstrating it is possible to bring vastly different views together. This book gives lessons learned on setting down at the table with the most diverse set of players and the journey they take to find common grounds and results. If your holiday dinner needs some mediation, look to the advice of author Lucy Moore.

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by Susan Jacobson,by Julia Corbett For the HISTORY BUFF in your life:

by Stephanie Meeks with Kevin C. Murphy When it comes to the the future of our cities, the secret to urban revival lies in our past. Tickle the fancy of your favorite history buff by sharing, which takes readers on a journey through our country's historic spaces to explain why preservation is important for all communities. With passion and expert insight, this book shows how historic spaces explain our past and serve as the foundation of our future.

Also consider:by Stewart Udall,by Julianne Lutz Warren

For the BUSINESS PERSON in your life:

by Mark Tercek For the aspiring CEO in your life who drools at phrases like "rates of return" and "investment," share the gift ofan essential guide to the world's economic (and environmental) well-being.

Also consider:by Pavan Sukhdev,by Joseph Fiksel

Gift Guide
Katharine Sucher

Katharine is the Publicity Marketing Associate at Island Press.

Jason Mark / August 16, 2017

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investigated the renoprotective properties of adiponectin in podocyte apoptosis through targeted activation of caspase-8 (POD-ATTAC) mice generated by induction of caspase-8-mediated apoptosis in podocytes after injection of a construct-specific agent. POD-ATTAC mice exhibited kidney damage that recovered after the initial induction. Ad −/− POD-ATTAC mice had more severe albuminuria and ablated podocytes failed to recover. Adiponectin-overexpressing POD-ATTAC mice maintained normal GFR, had reduced renal interstitial fibrosis and exhibited a greater recovery from podocyte injury and albuminuria. These findings imply that adiponectin aids in restoring podocytes and renal function but the initial protection of podocytes from apoptosis may be minimal.

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examined streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats that received injections of an adenovirus to cause overexpression of adiponectin (Ad-Adipo) or control protein (Ad-lacZ). Ad-Adipo rats exhibited reduced proteinuria compared with Ad-lacZ rats. In addition, Ad-Adipo rats had decreased transforming growth factor β1 (TGF-β1) levels in the renal cortex. Taking into account the involvement of TGF-β1 in the pathogenesis of diabetic nephropathy, contributing to cellular hypertrophy and increased synthesis of collagen, adiponectin may inhibit the adverse TGF-β1-mediated changes in renal physiology, that result in development of proteinuria. ALEXANDRE BIRMAN Leather amp; Plexi Clarita Sandals in Metallics qgRt5
also demonstrated that Ad-Adipo rats had increased levels of nephrin-mRNA in renal cortex. Nephrin is a protein found in podocytes and is crucial for the proper function of the glomerular filtration barrier, whereas downregulation of nephrin contributes to the development of proteinuria in diabetic nephropathy. Thus, the upregulation of nephrin levels in renal cortex appears to constitute a pathway through which adiponectin can reduce albuminuria, at least in diabetic nephropathy. Furthermore, this study showed that Ad-Adipo rats had decreased proinflammatory endothelin-1, plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) mRNA levels and increased vasodilatory endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) mRNA levels in renal cortex. Therefore, adiponectin appears to reduce endothelial dysfunction in diabetic nephropathy.

Ohashi et al . (2007) reported that adiponectin can attenuate the adverse effects of partial nephrectomy on renal structure and function, eventually reducing the albuminuria associated with this procedure. Partial nephrectomy results in hypertrophy of the remaining nephrons, podocyte injury, glomerular fibrosis and development of proteinuria through adaptive glomerular hyperfiltration, oxidative stress and inflammation. In the relevant study, subtotal nephrectomy was performed in Ad −/− mice and WT mice. Ad −/− mice exhibited more severe glomerular hypertrophy, glomerular infiltration of macrophages, glomerular and tubulointerstitial fibrosis and decreased nephrin-mRNA levels in the remnant kidney, and increased albuminuria compared with WT mice. Exogenous adiponectin replenishment of Ad −/− mice resulted in reduction in albuminuria and reversal of the adverse changes in renal structure of Ad −/− mice mentioned earlier. Therefore, adiponectin appears to attenuate albuminuria through activation of anti-inflammatory, antifibrotic and antioxidative pathways. Moreover, in this study immunohistochemical analysis revealed abundant immunostaining for adiponectin in the glomeruli and interstitium of the remnant kidney of WT mice after subtotal nephrectomy, but limited glomerular and tubulointerstitial immunostaining for adiponectin in nonoperated WT mice. This finding indicates that adiponectin possibly accumulates in the glomeruli and interstitium of the remnant kidney to counteract this renal injury, in response to an as yet unknown signal from the injured kidney. Further studies are needed to elucidate this issue.

Fig. 4.

Declustering of centromeres in and cells and localization of declustered centromeres to the nuclear periphery. (A) Images and statistical analysis of live cells showing the location of -LacI-GFP (green) signals and the SPB marker Cut12-CFP (red) in wild-type, and cells as indicated. Scale bar: 1.0 μm. at SPB indicates that -LacI-GFP is within 0.2 μm from Cut12-CFP and away from SPB indicates that -LacI-GFP is >0.2 μm from Cut12-CFP. (B) Images showing the location of centromeres (green) with respect to the nuclear periphery marker Pom152-GFP (white). Scale bar: 1.0 μm. See also deconvolved stacks of images (see supplemental Fig. S1 at ). (C) Diagram showing the distance in one focal plane between the declustered centromere cen()-FISH signal and the nuclear periphery as marked by Pom152-GFP (strains were Hu334 wild type (=26), Hu903 (=36) and Hu900 (=16).

Mis6 has previously been shown to influence spindle length, as shown by the increase of metaphase spindle length in mis6 mutants, which may be caused by an imbalance between the kinetochore forces that are pulling and the kinetochore-independent forces that are pushing on the centromeres ( Dr Martens Black Suede 1460 Boots xZrx2TV
). To visualize mitotic defects in mis6 and nuf2-1 cells we monitored cen1::lacO -LacI-GFP and the SPB marker Cut12-CFP by time-lapse microscopy. We found that both mis6 and nuf2-1 mutant cells displayed severe defects in movement of sister-centromeres in relation to the SPB compared with wild-type control cells ( Steve Madden DYNOMITE High heels black G0VoeibHsi
). In contrast, the majority of rik1 mutant cells displayed similar movements of sister-centromeres to those of wild-type cells (data not shown). To characterize the behavior of centromeres in mis6 and nuf2-1 cells we measured the distance from one SPB to the other and the distance from one SPB to the centromeres of the two segregating cen1::lacO -LacI-GFP signals ( cen1 and cen1* , respectively). Philipp Plein Pumps Scottish Diamond leather Stoff Strass 3V78JWDCA
shows that on similar length, 4.0-5.0 μm, spindles the average distance between the one SPB and the closest centromere ( cen1 ) was relatively similar in wild-type mis6 and nuf2-1 cells (0.5±0.31, 1.72±0.42 and 0.74±0.08 μm, respectively). However, on similar length 4.0-5.0 μm spindles the furthest-away sister centromere, cen1*, was 3.85±0.78 μm from the same SPB in wild-type cells, 1.93±0.46 μm in mis6 cells and 1.1±0.36 μm in nuf2-1 cells. Thus, whereas wild-type centromeres were segregated by at least 3.5 μm, centromeres had not significantly segregated from each other in mis6 and nuf2-1 cells. This severe mis-segregation phenotype is in accordance with the phenotypes reported earlier for mis6 and nuf2-1 ( Saitoh et al., 1997 ; Nabetani et al., 2001 ). The fact that the two phenotypes are so similar indicates that loss of kinetochore components from centromeres in mis6 is functionally equivalent to the compromised kinetochore structures in nuf2-1 . The consequence in both mutants is likely the occurrence of monotelic attachments in which only one functional sister kinetochore binds kinetochore microtubules or completely unattached sister kinetochores, resulting in spindle-kinetochore force imbalance and rapid spindle elongation as previously observed ( Goshima et al., 1999 ). In contrast, the defects in the heterochromatin domain caused by rik1 lead to decondensation of the heterochromatin. This decondensation had no effect on clustering and caused no dramatic effect on sister kinetochore behavior (data not shown) except for the previously observed lagging chromosome phenotype ( Cloud Womens Bali Bootie u5ctIH
). This phenotype is likely caused by a cohesin defect, since Rik1 is required to localize Swi6 to centromeres ( Saint LaurentBetty Crystal Embellished Leather Heeled Ankle Boots in h86qHz9Fjc
) and Swi6 is required in its turn for the recruitment of cohesins to the centromeric heterochromatin ( Bernard et al., 2001 ; Nonaka et al., 2002 ). Interestingly, we also observed a decondensation of centromeric heterochromatin in rik1 cells ( Fig. 2D ). In budding yeast, cohesins have been shown to regulate condensin function after condensins are associated with chromatin ( LINTERVALLE TALISA Heeled mules grey 9BMmQL
). Therefore, we speculate that the decondensation observed in rik1 is explained by loss of Swi6 causing a loss of cohesins and hence misregulation of condensins. In our experiments decondensation or cohesion defects were not observed in transacting mutations that affect central core or kinetochore. In contrast, these mutants showed defects in clustering of centromeres at the SPB and severe mitotic defects. Thus, the kinetochore and the central core are functionally distinct from the flanking heterochromatin domain, both with respect to the centromere function in interphase and the mitotic behavior of sister centromeres.